Agora Deposit: K 3:2
Title:   Byzantine Layer with Complete Pots
Supervisor:   James Artz
    Pirisino Daniele
    Kylindreas Miltiades
Category:   Fill
Description:   Excavation in Room 3 of ΒΘ West revealed 5 ceramic vessels in a row against the eastern face of Wall 12. 3 complete vessels (ΒΘ 122, 124, and 125) were catalogued, along with the base of a plain glazed flat-bottomed basin (ΒΘ 121). In addition to the vessels along the face of Wall 12, 5 coins were found within the fill, as well as a bronze ring and fragments of painted plaster (ΒΘ 134) from a wall.
Numerous joining sherds were found in ΒΘ Lots 402-404, which could potentially lead to more complete vessels. At least 1 vessel with full profile, a plate with poorly preserved glaze, is stored in ΒΘ Lot 404. Other joining fragments include significant portions of course water jars and amphorae, and a large pithos lid with decorative grooves (west:2012:f:42).
The fill in Room 3 was uniform in consistency, and no floor levels were found. The approximate elevation at which the 3 complete vessels were found was 53.630. The ceramic vessels were dated by Dr. Fotini Kondyli to the 9th-11th centuries A.D, although the fill around vessels contained ceramic evidence dating to the 12th-13th centuries A.D. The primary types of glazed Byzantine pottery found in the fill included green and brown painted ware, plain glaze ware, Constantinople white ware, and monochrome glaze.
Excavation of Room 3 progressed over the course of the 2012 season, and was only stopped due to the end of season. Fill below the end of season stopping point (elev.: 53.509) may contain sherds that join with those from the 2012 excavation season. See also ΒΘ Lots 139, 239 and 240 for possible joining sherds from previous excavation seasons.
2013 Addendum:
During the 2013 field season, excavation in Room 3 of ΒΘ West revealed 3 ceramic vessels at approximately the same elevation as the pots assigned to Deposit K 3:2 during the 2012 season. In addition to the 3 vessels, a roof cover tile was mended from the tile debris in the same area, and 10 coins were found within the fill directly above and around the surface, mostly Anonymous Byzantine Folles datable to 1070-1075 A.D.
Excavation in Room 3 was restricted to a small area south of and adjacent to Wall 23. The fragmentary remains of a ceramic pithos (ΒΘ 178) were revealed after the removal of a reused threshold block above the pithos. Many fragments of a deep bowl with poorly preserved glaze (ΒΘ 171) were wedged between the wall of the pithos and the southern face of Wall 23. Half of a dish with poorly preserved glaze (ΒΘ 179) was found in the northern scarp of the trench. An illegible coin (ΒΘ-239) was found in the fill within the pithos (ΒΘ 178).
The fill within the pithos was removed separately (ΒΘ Lot 528), and after consultation with Dr. Joanita Vroom and the Agora staff, all fill from the pithos was saved, but not given an Agora Sample number. Removal of fill around the pithos (ΒΘ Lot 529, 10th-11th century A.D.) revealed a poorly preserved pale yellow clay floor sloping downwards from west to east (elev.: 53.803 ¬¬– 53.590). All of the 2013 cataloged objects included in Deposit K 3:2 were found in the fill above this floor, with the pithos and some of the coins resting on it. The floor was left in situ at the end of the season.
2017 Addendum:
In 2017, we resumed excavation of Room 3, concentrating our efforts on the high baulk at the northeastern part of the room.
We began by excavating the eastern portion of the high baulk (Lots ΒΘ 951, 952, 953, 955). A plaster layer was exposed and removed over the course of several baskets in the southern half of the eastern portion at an average elevation of 53.883m, and ceramic material from these layers date from the late 11th-early 13th century AD. We also uncovered fragments of a Byzantine vessel at an elevation of 53.590m, which were later removed entirely (ΒΘ 302).
While excavating the western portion of the high baulk (Lots ΒΘ 954, 958), we documented and removed the majority of the tile concentration lying at K/6,8-3/1,2 as postulated in the 2016 season report (ΒΘ West, p. 11). Ceramic material from this removal dates the layer from the 11th-13th century AD.
With the evidence available, we can now interpret the large amount of tile uncovered this season and previous seasons in this part of Room 3 as the consequence of a roof collapse. The whole sequence of abandonment and collapse was completed sometime in the 13th century AD.
Contents:   Plain glaze ware; Constantinople white ware; monochrome glaze; green and brown painted ware; combed ware; ridged ware; gouged ware; amphora toe; incised coarse ware; Roman lamp fragment and red wares; classical red and black glaze (including geometric, archaic, and classical); coarse base with strange shape, handle and neck close to base; coarse handles, bases, rims, and body sherds; micaceous body; cooking ware, including joining lid fragments; painted and unpainted plaster; roof and floor tile fragments; pithos lid, rim and body fragments; worked stone; stone revetment; bone; metal; glass
Chronology:   9th-11th c. A.D.
Date:   27 June-30 July 2012
17-30 July 2013
16 June-2 August 2017
Section:   ΒΘ
Grid:   K/6,9-3/1,3
Elevation:   53.976-53.244m.
Masl:   53.244-53.976m.
References:   Report Page: 2017 Excavations, s. 1
Images (4)