[Agora Webpage] AgoraPicBk 16 2003: Church of the Holy Apostles


Church of the Holy Apostles Several churches were removed following the excavation of the modern neighborhoods overlying the Agora. The Church of the Holy Apostles, because of its early date, was deemed ... (Figs. 67–70; for location, see Fig. 41). Dated to the ... Figure 70. Church of the Holy

[Agora Webpage] AgoraPicBk 16 2003: Mint


Mint Just east of the fountain house lie the miserable remains of a large square building with several rooms; the northern half lies under the Church of the Holy Apostles and the Southeast Temple (Early ... (Early Roman) (Figs. 36, 37; see also Fig. 41).

[Agora Webpage] AgoraPicBk 16 2003: Northwest Corner and the Hermes


Northwest Corner and the Hermes The area of the northwest corner is where the Panathenaic Way, leading from the main gate of Athens, the Dipylon, entered the Agora square (Figs. 58, 59). This was accordingly ... square (Figs. 58, 59). This ... (Fig. 60). "Menekles or ... public square. Figure 59. A

[Agora Webpage] AgoraPicBk 16 2003: Metroon


Metroon (Archives) The Metroon served two functions; it was both a sanctuary of the Mother of the Gods and the archive building of the city, a repository of official records (Fig. 19). The present remains ... Agorakritos (cf. Fig. 20), seen by ... official records (Fig. 19). The

[Agora Webpage] AgoraPicBk 16 2003: Lawcourts


Lawcourts Underlying the north end of the Stoa of Attalos are the slight remains of a group of buildings dating to the 5th and 4th centuries B.C. (Fig. 50). Largely open courtyards, they seem to have served ... centuries B.C. (Fig. 50). Largely ... (Fig. 51). Figure 50. Plan of ... figs, summoners, bunches of

[Agora Webpage] AgoraPicBk 16 2003: Tholos


Tholos The south half of the west side was given over to the major administrative buildings used to run the Athenian democracy (Fig. 14). The buildings are poorly preserved, but the identifications are ... (Fig. 14). The buildings are ... terracotta roof tiles (Fig. 15) ... (Fig. 16). Figure 16. Public

[Agora Webpage] AgoraPicBk 16 2003: Southwest Fountain House


Southwest Fountain House Closer to the agora proper a row of five public buildings lined the south side of the square in the Classical period (Fig. 29, 36). They comprise several important monuments, though ... period (Fig. 29, 36). They ... of the letter L (Fig. 30).

[Agora Webpage] AgoraPicBk 16 2003: Temple of Apollo Patroos


Temple of Apollo Patroos Next to the Stoa of Zeus at the south are the remains of a small temple of Apollo Patroos (Fatherly), so-called because he was the father of Ion, founder of the Ionian Greeks, ... included the Athenians (Fig ... Pausanias (Fig. 11). Figure 10.

[Agora Webpage] AgoraPicBk 16 2003: Royal Stoa


Royal Stoa On the west side, lying just south of the Panathenaic Way, are the remains of the Royal Stoa (Stoa Basileios), one of the earliest and most important of the public buildings of Athens (Figs ... buildings of Athens (Figs. 61, ... democracy (Fig. 63), and Sokrates ... middle (Fig. 64). It should

[Agora Webpage] AgoraPicBk 16 2003: Library of Pantainos


Library of Pantainos Lying partially under and behind the Late Roman wall are the remains of a building identified by its inscribed marble lintel block as the Library of Pantainos, dedicated to Athena ... years around A.D. 100 (Figs ... hour until the sixth" (Fig ... century A.D. (Fig. 46), and the

[Agora Webpage] AgoraPicBk 16 2003: Panathenaic Way


Panathenaic Way Numerous roads led in and out of the Agora square. By far the most important, however, was the broad street known as the Dromos or Panathenaic Way, the principal thoroughfare of the city ... thoroughfare of the city (Fig. 4) ... along its south side (Fig ... festival (Fig. 6). It seems also

[Agora Webpage] AgoraPicBk 16 2003: Odeion of Agrippa


Odeion of Agrippa Late in the 1st century B.C. the Athenians were given money for a new marketplace by Caesar and Augustus, and the northern half of the old Agora square was filled with two new structures, ... square (Fig. 52). The ... level on the north (Fig. 53) ... (Fig. 54). Figure 54. Giant

[Agora Webpage] AgoraPicBk 16 2003: Southeast Fountain House


Southeast Fountain House The slight traces just south of the Church of the Holy Apostles have been identified as the remains of an early fountain house (Figs. 33, 34). The identification is based on a ... early fountain house (Figs ... side chambers (Fig. 35). The

[Agora Webpage] AgoraPicBk 16 2003: Southwest Area


Southwest Area - Industry and Houses Leaving the area of the boundary stone, one can head southwest up a valley leading toward the Pnyx, meeting place of the Athenian assembly. Here are the complex remains ... (Fig. 27). Excavation of the ... at the rear (Fig. 28). It

[Agora Webpage] AgoraPicBk 16 2003: South Stoa II


South Stoa II South Stoa II ran westward from the south end of the East Building, parallel to the Middle Stoa (Figs. 38, 41). Dating to the second half of the 2nd century B.C., it consisted of a single ... Stoa (Figs. 38, 41). Dating

[Agora Webpage] AgoraPicBk 16 2003: East Building


East Building Running southward from the east end of the Middle Stoa is the East Building. Its eastern half takes the form of a long hall with a marble chip floor and stone slabs designed to carry wooden ... tables (Fig. 40). The

[Agora Webpage] AgoraPicBk 16 2003: Middle Stoa


Middle Stoa The appearance of the south side of the Agora was radically changed during the 2nd century B.C. with the construction of several new buildings. This South Square, as it is called, was made ... linking them (Fig. 38). Of the ... a terracotta roof (Fig

[Agora Webpage] AgoraPicBk 16 2003: Bouleuterion


Bouleuterion Just uphill from the Tholos was the Bouleuterion, meeting place of the boule, or senate. Five hundred Athenian citizens were chosen by lot to serve for a year, and met in this building every ... (Figs. 17, 18) that lies under

[Agora Webpage] AgoraPicBk 16 2003: Boundary Stones and House of Simon the Cobbler


Boundary Stones and House of Simon the Cobbler Inscribed marble posts were used to mark the entrances to the Agora wherever a street led into the open square. Two have been found in situ, inscribed with ... around 500 B.C. (Figs. 23, ... Simon (Figs. 25, 26).

[Agora Webpage] AgoraPicBk 16 2003: Hephaisteion


Hephaisteion Overlooking the Agora from the hill to the west (Kolonos Agoraios), is the Hephaisteion, the best preserved example of a Doric temple in mainland Greece (Fig. 12). It was dedicated jointly ... mainland Greece (Fig. 12). It ... century A.D. (Fig. 13), saving

[Agora Webpage] AgoraPicBk 16 2003: Introduction


Introduction Classical Athens saw the rise of an achievement unparalleled in history. Perikles, Aeschylus, Sophokles, Plato, Demosthenes, Thucydides, and Praxiteles represent just a few of the statesmen ... (Fig. 1; and restored ... objects (Fig. 2) illustrate the

[Agora Webpage] AgoraPicBk 16 2003: Stoa of Attalos


Stoa of Attalos Lining the east side of the Agora square is the Stoa of Attalos (Fig. 47), built during the reign of Attalos II of Pergamon (159–138 B.C.), who studied in Athens under the philosopher Karneades ... (Fig. 47), built during the ... in 1953–1956 (Figs. 48,

[Agora Webpage] AgoraPicBk 16 2003: South Stoa I


South Stoa I Measuring some 80 meters long, South Stoa I takes up much of the south side; its eastern end is the better preserved (Figs. 31, 32). It had a double colonnade, with sixteen rooms behind. It ... (Figs. 31, 32). It had a

[Agora Webpage] Overview: The Notebooks


The Notebooks The process of excavating an archaeological site is essentially destructive but the irrevocable features are preserved in a notebook. The excavator records his thoughts and observations, ... p. 18.) Fragments of many ... life-size” (Nb. Ε I, p. 4; April

[Agora Webpage] AgoraPicBk 16 2003: Stoa of Zeus Eleutherios


Stoa of Zeus Eleutherios Lying just south of the railroad tracks, along the west side, are the remains of the Stoa of Zeus Eleutherios (Freedom) (Figs. 8, 9). This cult of Zeus was established after the ... (Freedom) (Figs. 8, 9). This cult

[Agora Webpage] AgoraPicBk 16 2003: Monument of the Eponymous Heroes


Monument of the Eponymous Heroes Across the street from the Metroon lie the remains of the Monument of the Eponymous Heroes (Fig. 21). When Kleisthenes created the democracy in 508/7 B.C., he assigned ... (Fig. 21). When Kleisthenes ... (Fig. 22). It served as a

[Agora Webpage] AgoraPicBk 16 2003: Late Roman Fortification Wall


Late Roman Fortification Wall East of the East Building and Mint we arrive once again at the Panathenaic Way, which in this area is lined along its eastern side by a massive wall built in the 3rd century ... century A.D. (Fig. 42). The

[Agora Webpage] Overview: The Museum


The Museum On display in the public galleries of the stoa is a selection of the thousands of objects recovered in the past 75 years, reflecting the use of the area from 3000 B.C. to A.D. 1500. The public ... ostracism in 417–415 B.C. (P 29373, P 31179, Agora Museum) ... handles, and over 70,000 coins.

[Agora Webpage] AgoraPicBk 16 2003: Temple of Ares


Temple of Ares Just north of the Odeion lie the ruins of a building identified by Pausanias as a temple of Ares (Figs. 56, 57). The foundations are of Early Roman construction and date, but the marble ... temple of Ares (Figs. 56, 57).

[Agora Webpage] Overview: The Altar of Zeus and Statue of Hadrian


The Altar of Zeus The Agora Excavations began with the aim of revealing the monuments and history of the ancient Agora. Of course, every artifact or feature that was exposed held importance, but when something ... on photos p. 507" (Nb. Ε ... III, p. 518). The statue

[Agora Webpage] AgoraPicBk 16 2003: History of the Excavations


History of the Excavations Some of the Agora monuments have never been fully buried and were explored by the Archaeological Society starting in the 19th century: the Stoa of Attalos (1859–1862, 1874, and ... War (Figs. 71–75). In

[Agora Webpage] AgoraPicBk 16 2003: Altar of the Twelve Gods


Altar of the Twelve Gods Near the middle of the open square, somewhat to the north, lay the Altar of the Twelve Gods (Fig. 7), today largely hidden under the Athens–Piraeus railway (1891). A corner of ... Gods (Fig. 7), today largely

[Agora Webpage] Birth of Democracy: Practice of Ostracism


Ostracism Soon after their victory over the Persians at the battle of Marathon in 490 B.C., the Athenians began the practice of ostracism, a form of election designed to curb the power of any rising tyrant ... P 14490. Inscribed ... P 6107. Inscribed: ... P 16755. Inscribed:

[Agora Webpage] Birth of Democracy: The Popular Courts


The Popular Courts The popular courts, with juries of no fewer than 201 jurors and as many as 2,500, heard a variety of cases. The courts also had an important constitutional role in wielding ultimate ... Athens-figs, summoners, bunches of ... Museum P 28470. The ... Athens, Agora Museum P 14655.

[Agora Webpage] Overview: The Staff


The Archaeologists The First Generation The Agora Excavations staff and work force, 1933. Archaeologists, staff, foremen, and workmen gathered under the Hephaisteion for a group photograph. The staff of ... Athens, 1939–1980 [1984], p. ... Picturebook 26 [2006], p. 53) ... 1, 1948, p. 13). Young was

[Agora Webpage] Overview: Photography


Photography A photograph made using the traditional silver halide process is a visual record largely unaltered by the photographer. It is this quality of capturing a mirrored image of the scene that lends ... m” (Nb. Ε I, p. 140; June ... p.m. The photograph above

[Agora Webpage] AgoraPicBk 16 2003: Stoa Poikile


Stoa Poikile Across modern Hadrian Street are the most recent excavations (2003), along the north side of the square. Here have been revealed the remains of another large stoa, identified on the basis ... interior column capitals (Figs

[Agora Webpage] Birth of Democracy: The Verdict


The Verdict After the speeches and other evidence had been presented, the members of the jury voted by casting ballots. A series of vase paintings of the early 5th century B.C. show a mythological story, ... translated by P.J. Rhodes) Bronze ... .70 m. Athens, Agora

[Agora Webpage] Birth of Democracy: Women


The Unenfranchised I - Women Numerous people resident in Athens and Attica had little part in the political life of the state. Most glaring by modern standards was the exclusion of women, although a similar ... Agora Museum P 23133. The ... Athens, Agora Museum P 29766.

[Agora Webpage] Overview: The Excavations


The Excavations Excavations in the Athenian Agora by the American School of Classical Studies at Athens commenced in 1931 under the supervision of T. Leslie Shear. The systematic excavation of this important ... [Nb.] E I, p. 74; May 25,

[Agora Webpage] Birth of Democracy: The Prytaneis


The Prytaneis (Executive Committee) The senators administered their meetings themselves. Each tribal contingent in the Boule served in rotation for a period of 35 or 36 days as the Prytaneis, or Executive ... Museum P 5117. 9.3 Small olpe ... Agora Museum P 13429. Both

[Agora Webpage] AgoraPicBk 16 2003: History of the Agora


History of the Agora The excavations of the Athenian Agora have uncovered about thirty acres on the sloping ground northwest of the Acropolis (Fig. 3). Material of all periods from the Late Neolithic to ... northwest of the Acropolis (Fig

[Agora Webpage] Overview: The Church of the Holy Apostles


The Church of the Holy Apostles Though several churches were removed in the clearing of the site for excavation, it was decided to save and restore the little Byzantine church dedicated to the Holy Apostles ... p. 2). View of the Church

[Agora Webpage] Overview: Volunteer Application


Excavations in the Athenian Agora Volunteer Program Summer 2013 The American School of Classical Studies at Athens announces a program for volunteer excavators wishing to participate in the archaeological ... a.m. to 3 p.m. with a

[Agora Webpage] Birth of Democracy: Solon the Lawgiver


Solon the Lawgiver By the early 6th century B.C. social tensions in Athens had become acute, pitting the poorer citizens against rich and powerful landowners. Many citizens were reduced to the status of ... Athens, Agora Museum P 27646 ... m. Athens, Agora Museum P

[Agora Webpage] Birth of Democracy: Sokrates


Sokrates The philosopher Sokrates was one of many Athenians critical of the people and their control over affairs of state. His probing public debates with fellow citizens led to his trial for impiety ... Athens, Agora Museum P 22998 ... Athens, Agora Museum P 20858.

[Agora Webpage] Birth of Democracy: The Athenian Aristocracy


The Athenian Aristocracy Before democracy, from the 8th to the 6th century B.C., Athens was prosperous economically but no more significant than many other city-states in Greece. Silver deposits south ... Museum P 24673. This

[Agora Webpage] Birth of Democracy: Administration and Bureaucracy


Administration and Bureaucracy The economy of Athens was supervised by numerous boards of officials in charge of the mint, the marketplace, weights and measures, and the grain and water supplies. Most ... Athens, Agora Museum P 3559.

[Agora Webpage] Birth of Democracy: The Speakers


The Speakers Litigants spoke on their own behalf, although occasionally using speeches prepared by trained professionals; skillful rhetoric was necessary in order to sway a jury. The speeches written by ... Athens, Agora Museum P 2084.

[Agora Webpage] Birth of Democracy: The Athenian Army


The Athenian Army From the very beginning, the Athenians were compelled to fight for their new democracy. Their dramatic victories over the Boiotians and Chalkidians in 506 B.C. led many to attribute Athenian ... Museum P 15837. A warrior with ... Athens, Agora Museum P 24061.

[Agora Webpage] Birth of Democracy: State Religion


State Religion: The Archon Basileus There was no attempt in Classical Athens to separate church and state. Altars and shrines were intermingled with the public areas and buildings of the city. A single ... Athens, Agora Museum P 42. It

[Agora Webpage] Birth of Democracy: Tyranny


Tyranny As happened in many other Greek states, a tyrant arose in Athens in the 6th century B.C. His name was Peisistratos, and after several unsuccessful attempts he seized power in 546 B.C. and ruled ... Museum P 24106. Building

[Agora Webpage] Publications: Monographs


Monographs Excavations in the civic and cultural center of classical Athens began in 1931 and have continued almost without interruption to the present day. The first Athenian Agora volumes presenting ... P.Publication Date: 1986ISBN: